1. Basics of Structures
  A structure is a collection of related variables (of possibly different types) grouped together under a single name. This is a an example of composition–building complex structures out of simple ones.
struct point {
    int x;
    int y;
// notice the ; at the end
struct student {
    char name[64];
    int id;
    int age;
A struct declaration defines a type.
The name of the structure is optional
   struct { ... } x, y, z;
The variables declared within a structure are called its members.
Variables can be declared like any other built in data-type.
   struct point pt;
Initialization is done by specifying values of every member.
   struct point pt={10, 20};
Assignment operator copies every member of the structure (be careful with pointers).
Members can be structures
struct triangle {
struct point ptA;
struct point ptB;
struct point ptC;
Members can be self referential
struct element {
    int data;
    struct element *next;
Individual members can be accessed using ‘.’ operator.
struct point pt={10, 20};
int x=pt.x; int y=pt.y;
If structure is nested, multiple ‘.’ are required
struct rectangle
    struct point tl; /∗ top left ∗/
    struct point br; /∗ bottom right ∗/
struct rectangle rect ;
int tlx= rect.tl.x; /∗ nested ∗/
int tly= rect.tl.y;
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