3. Formatted Output - printf
The output function printf translates internal values to characters.
int printf(char *format, arg1, arg2, ...);
printf() can be used for formatted output.
It takes in a variable number of arguments.
It returns the number of characters printed.
The format can contain literal strings as well as format specifiers (starts with %).
printf("hello world\n”);
printf("%d\n”, 10); // format: %d (integer),
        // argument: 10
printf("Prices: %d and %d\n”, 10, 20);
printf format specification
The format specification has the following components
type meaning example output
d, i integer printf ("%d",10);     10
x, X integer(hex) printf ("%x",10); 0xa
u unsigned integer printf ("%u",10 10
c character printf ("%c",’A A
s string printf ("%s","hello"); hello
f float printf ("%f",2.3); 2.3
d double printf ("%d",2.3); 2.3
e, E float(exp) 1e3,1.2E3,1E−3 1e3,1.2E3,1E−3
% literal % printf ("%d %%",10); 10 %
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